Tras la  reciente elección presidencial, la Cámara  de Representantes está renovando un esfuerzo para eliminar la lotería de visas de Estados Unidos y sustituirlo por un proyecto de ley a favor de miles de inmigrantes con altos conocimientos tecnológicos , a quienes se les daría la residencia permanente , también a extranjeros estudiantes en Estados Unidos en carreras de ciencia, ingeniería y matemáticas.

Los republicanos, incluso, buscan  añadir una disposición  a la que alguna vez se opusieron que busca que  los cónyuges e hijos menores de inmigrantes legales puedan  reunirse con sus familiares en los Estados Unidos en lugar de esperar por años en sus países de origen.

La aprobación de esta  visa de intercambio cumpliría el objetivo de los republicanos de la cámara , de eliminar el concepto de  “lotería de visas de diversidad”, que premia al azar  50.000 inmigrantes con  tarjetas verdes de residencia permanente a personas de países con bajas tasas de inmigración a los Estados Unidos, siempre y cuando tengan un diploma de secundaria.

Esta nueva propuesta podría ayudar a los estudiantes internacionales en las universidades de Estados Unidos.  Actualmente  la mayoría de estudiantes internacionales en el Sur de la Florida se sienten atrapados y atascados en sus proyectos en Estados Unidos, una vez reciben sus grados.

After the presidential election , the  House of Representatives is renewing a push to eliminate America’s random visa lottery and replace it with a bill favored by thousands of  high tech immigrant workers: one that would give green cards to foreigners with advanced U.S. degrees in science, engineering and math.

Republicans are even adding a provision they once opposed to allow the spouses and minor children of legal immigrants to join their family members in the United States instead of waiting for years in their home countries.

Passage of the visa swap would fulfill a goal of reigning House Republicans to gut the annual “diversity visa lottery,” which randomly awards 50,000 green cards for permanent residency to people from countries with low rates of immigration to the United States as long as they have a high school degree.

This new proposal could help international students in American universities , most of them in universities of south Florida were some students got stuck in the immigration system after they finished they degrees.

Según la reciente decisión de un juez federal,  Los estudiantes  que no son residentes legales de la Florida y que asisten a Universidades Publicas , no tendrán que pagar matriculas más costosas , simplemente por que sus padres no tienen documentos legales.

El juez de distrito K. Michael Moore,  determinó que esa política de que estos estudiantes pagaran más viola la cláusula de igualdad establecida en la constitución , al obligar a estos estudiantes  a pagar injustamente hasta  tres veces más que los residentes de Florida.  Afirmando que los niños nacidos en este país son ciudadanos sin importar si  sus padres tienen un estatus migratorio legal.

El fallo se produjo gracias  una demanda presentada por el  Southern Poverty Law Center en  Montgomery, Alabama , hecha a nombre de varios estudiantes de la Florida que se les negó la matrícula estatal porque no podían probar sus padres estaban  en este país legalmente.

La política de la Florida, que ha estado en vigor desde hace varios años, se aplica a los estudiantes menores de 24 años que también son reclamados como dependientes de sus padres. De acuerdo con un análisis de las cifras del Censo de los Estados Unidos, casi 9.000 niños de padres inmigrantes indocumentados están matriculados en universidades públicas de la Florida en este año.

Este año también se han creado nuevas  legislaciones a nivel federal   para que estudiantes sin documentos  puedan tener acceso a trabajo y a educación.

Students at Florida’s public colleges and universities cannot be charged higher out-of-state tuition simply because their parents are in the U.S. without documentation, a federal judge ruled.

U.S. District Judge K. Michael Moore determined the policy violates the equal protection clause of the Constitution by forcing those students to unfairly pay three times as much as Florida residents. Children born in this country are citizens whether or not their parents have legal immigration status.

The ruling  came in a lawsuit filed by the Montgomery, Ala.-based Southern Poverty Law Center on behalf of several Florida students who were denied in-state tuition because they could not prove their parents are in this country legally.

The Florida policy, which has been in effect for several years, applies to students under age 24 who are also claimed as dependents by parents. According to an analysis of U.S Census figures, nearly 9,000 children of undocumented immigrant parents are enrolled in Florida public colleges and universities in a given year.

New pathways to work and education have recently been opened at the federal level for young people who are in the U.S. without documentation.

DREAM ACT VS Deferred Action

Many people have been asking whether the policy of deferred action announced by the Department of Homeland Security is the same as the DREAM ACT. It’s not, but the confusion is understandable. The requirements for the two programs are similar, but there is a big difference. The DREAM Act is a law that was proposed by the Congress and it was closed down. The deferred action program is an executive order. The authority behind these two programs is different , there are two branches of government. That means that neither can do what the other does. The DREAM ACT is unable to be implemented quickly and have to go through and be approved by both houses of Congress, and we saw that was not possible. Obama’s executive order is unable to provide a current status to immigrants who qualify for deferred action.

Deferred action simply delayed the deportation of an immigrant, this is a policy change. While deferred action program is not a law , could prompt lawmakers to merge laws that do what the DREAM ACT could have done, especially if the policy begins to demonstrate how these immigrants benefiting from the program are contributing the system that has given these resources.

We have to remember that this measure does not solve the problem of the estimated 11 million undocumented immigrants who are currently in the country, and also that this deferred action does not mean a path to citizenship or legalization.

Florida Young immigrants could access deferred action program

Florida is among the states with young immigrants  that could access the deferred action program of President Obama who during his tenure has deported more than 1.1 million immigrants, the highest number since 1950. But thanks to this action is estimated that nearly 1.4 million young people would be eligible for this benefit, most of them Latino especially from México ..

One of those cases  that has had more impact in the media is the Colombian student Daniela and her sister Dayana Peláez, who reside in Miami, and recently  received immigration relief known as “deferred action” to suspend the deportation order and allowed  them to remain in the U.S. for two years. The two girls were brought to the U.S. as children and are currently facing deportation proceedings. After an immigration judge ordered voluntary departure for  the two sisters. Daniela, 18, is an outstanding student in high school North Miami Senior High with a high GPA of 6.7 , whose parents brought her to the United States when he was 4 years old.  This is just one of the thousands of young immigrants whose lives have been changed by this differed action

Notice of deferred Action

This June, President Barack Obama announced a mechanism by which an undocumented immigrant can stay in the country and receive a work permit.  This action allows young people who have came to the United States when younger than 16 years of age, who have resided continuously in the United States for at least five years, and who are present in the country as of June 15th, 2012.

Additional requirement include current enrollment into school, or have obtained a certificate of general educational development. They can also could be a discharged veterans with honors  from the Armed Forces of the United States. And also not be over thirty-one years old.

Applicants must not have been convicted of serious crimes or pose a threat to national security.

This benefit will be delivered initially for two years, but with the possibility of renewal. The cost of the process  is $ 465, which involves applying a work permit and fingerprinting.

To demonstrate the stay and residence in the country, people may use financial, medical, school, employment and military records. And diplomas, GED certificates, report cards for schools.

DREAM ACT VS ACCION DIFERIDA

Mucha gente se ha estado  preguntando si la política de Acción Diferida anunciada por el Departamento de Seguridad Interna es lo mismo que el DREAM ACT. No lo es, pero la confusión es entendible. Los requisitos para los dos programas son  similares, pero hay una gran diferencia . El DREAM ACT es una ley que fue propuesta por medio del congreso y no pasó a más. El programa de Acción Diferida es una orden ejecutiva. La autoridad detrás de estos dos programas son dos ramas del gobierno diferentes. Eso quiere decir que ninguno de los dos puede hacer lo que el otro hace. El DREAM ACT es incapaz de ser implementado rápidamente ya que tiene que pasar por medio y ser aprobada por las dos cámaras del congreso, y ya vimos que no pudo hacerlo. La orden ejecutiva de Obama es incapaz de dar un status actual a los inmigrantes quienes califican para Acción Diferida.

Acción Diferida simplemente retrasa la deportación de un inmigrante, se trata de un cambio de política. Aunque el programa de Acción Diferida no es una ley oficial, podría impulsar a los legisladores para que funden leyes que hagan lo que el DREAM ACT pudo haber hecho, especialmente si la política comienza a demonstrar la manera que estos inmigrantes beneficiados por el programa están contribuyendo al sistema que le ha dado estos recursos.

Hay que recordar que esta medida no soluciona el problema de los cerca de 11 millones de inmigrantes indocumentados que se encuentran en el país, y también que esta acción diferida no significa un camino hacia la ciudadanía o a la legalización.